As a minimum requirement, DPOP PhD students must complete the courses specified in the table below, plus a minimum of nine hours of elective courses based on a chosen concentration area. The graduate faculty of the division must approve any deviations from the standard plan of study, but it is always possible to modify this course of study based on your background, experience and professional aspirations.
|Pharmacoeconomics||3||DPOP 801 (3) (F) Offered every other year (even years)|
|Social and Behavioral Aspects of Pharmaceutical Use||3||DPOP 803 (3) (S) Offered every other year (odd years)|
||DPOP 806 (3) (F) Offered every other year (even years)|
||DPOP872 (3) (S) Offered every year
|DPOP Seminar||4||DPOP 899 (1) (F and S) Offered every year|
|Doctoral Dissertation||6||DPOP 994 (3) (F and S) Offered every year|
|Ethics||1||PHCY 801 (F) Offered every year
|Fundamentals of epidemiology||3||EPID 600 (3)|
|Epidemiologic Research with Healthcare Databases||3||EPID 690, Section 5 (formerly DPOP 804) (3) (S) Offered every other year (odd years)|
|Research Methods||3||HBHE 760 (3) (F) every other year (even years)|
|Statistics||9||See course recommended by concentration areas|
||May include research credits for participation in independent studies with faculty|
HPM 872: Developing Proposals for Health Services and Policy Research
Permission of instructor required. Integrated study of selected theory
and research as it relates to the organization and delivery of health
services. Section: 001; Instructor: Morrissey, Rao; Days and Time: T; 2:30-4:50 pm; Location: TBA
Alternative Courses to Fulfill Fundamentals of Epidemiology Requirement
- EPID 600 Principles of Epidemiology (3) Pre- or corequisite: BIOS 600. Permission required for non-SPH majors. An introductory course that considers the meaning, scope and applications of epidemiology to public health practice and the uses of vital statistics data in the scientific appraisal of community health. One lecture and two lab hours per week.
- EPID 710 Fundamentals of Epidemiology (3). An intensive introduction to epidemiological concepts and methods for students intending to engage in, collaborate in, or interpret the results of epidemiologic studies. Some familiarity with biomedical concepts may be needed. To gain access to this class, students usually are required to declare a minor in Epidemiology.
Courses to Fulfill Statistics Requirements
Recommended Alternatives for Students Concentrating in Pharmacoeconomics
- HPAA 470, Section 2. Statistical Methods for Health Policy and Administration (3). Introduction of linear model approach to the analysis of data in health care settings. Topics include probability distributions, estimation tests of hypotheses, methods in multiple regression, and analysis of variance and covariance.
- HPAA 881 Linear Regression Models (3). Prerequisite: HPAA 496 Math Module (16) and HPAA 496 Stats Module (28) or equivalent. Required for all doctoral students. This course is an introduction to linear regression models. Topics include linear algebra, least squares regression, multicollinearity, heteroscedasticity, autocorrelation, and hypothesis testing.
- HPAA 882 Advanced Methodology in Health Policy and Administration Research (3). Prerequisite: HPAA 881, or permission of the instructor. Research methodology as applied to understanding problems in health care delivery. Topics include simultaneous equation models, factor analysis, limited dependent variables, and an introduction to event history analysis.
- HPAA 883 Analysis of Categorical Data (3) Prerequisite: HPAA 882 or equivalent. This course is an introduction to the analysis of categorical data using maximum likelihood and specification tests. Topics covered include econometric models in which the dependent variable is not continuous, including logit, probit, tobit, two-part, and duration models.
Recommended Alternatives for Students Concentrating in Pharmacoepidemiology
- BIOS 600 Principles of Statistical Inference (3). Major topics include elementary probability theory, probability distributions, estimation, tests of hypotheses, chi-square procedures, regression and correlation.
- BIOS 545 Principles of Experimental Analysis (3). Continuation of BIOS 600; the analysis of experimental and observational data, including multiple regression, and analysis of variance and co-variance.
- EPID 718 Epidemiologic Analysis Of Binary Data (3). Prerequisite, EPID 715. Permission of instructor required for nonmajors. Concepts and applications, including logistic regression, binomial regression, model building strategy, additive and multiplicative interaction, and graphical exploration. Includes computer-based experience with real data.
- EPID 722 Epidemiologic Analysis Of Time-To-Event Data (3). Permission of instructor required for nonmajors. Concepts and applications in survival analysis and analysis of incidence rates, including truncation and censoring, Kaplan-Meier analysis, proportional hazards regression, time-dependent exposures, Poisson regression, sensitivity analysis, bootstrapping, and multiple imputation.
Recommended Alternatives for Students Concentrating in Social/Behavioral Pharmacy
- PSYC 830 Statistical Methods in Psychology I (4). Prerequisite, a course in introductory statistics. Data analysis, sampling, applied probability, elementary distribution theory, principles of statistical inference.
- PSYC 831 Statistical Methods in Psychology II (4). Prerequisite, PSYC 830. Statistical estimation and hypothesis testing for linear models (ANOVA, ANCOVA, regression analysis); statistical models in the design and analysis of experiments.
- PSYC 841 Introduction to Multivariate Techniques for the Behavioral Sciences (3). Prerequisite, PSYC 831 or permission of the instructor. An introduction to linear regression and multivariate statistical techniques as employed in the behavioral sciences, with particular emphasis on analytic techniques and interpretation of results.
- PSYC 844 Structural Equation Models with Latent Variables (3). Prerequisite, PSYC 831 or permission of the instructor. Examination of a wide range of topics in covariance structure models, including their history, underlying theory, controversies, and practical use with major computer packages.
- PSYC 851 Multidimensional Scaling (3). Prerequisites, PSYC 831 and 854, or equivalent. Survey, with application to dissimilarity data, of the algebraic, geometric and computational bases of multidimensional scaling methods, with emphasis on individual differences models and nonlinear transformation.
- PSYC 853 Analysis of Frequency Tables in Behavioral Research (3). Prerequisite, PSYC 831 or permission of the instructor. An introduction to the analysis of frequency data (including measures of association) and the use of log-linear models and logit models in the behavioral sciences.
- SOCI 708 Statistics for Sociologists (3). Provides an introduction to probability theory, descriptive statistics, inferential statistics, and the algebra of expectations. Emphasis is on elements useful to research sociologists, including bivariate regression and correlation.
- SOCI 709 Linear Regression Models (3). The course presents regression analysis and related techniques. The major topics are: the assumptions of the regression model; dummy variables and interaction terms; outlier diagnostics; multicollinearity; specification error; heteroscedasticity; and autocorrelation. The final section introduces path analysis, recursive models, and nonrecursive systems.
- SOCI 711 Analysis of Categorical Data (3). Prerequisite, permission of the instructor. Introduction to techniques and programs for analyzing categorical variables and nonlinear models. Special attention is given to decomposition of complex contingency tables, discriminant function analysis, Markov chains, and nonmetric multidimensional scaling.
- SOCI 717 Structural Equations with Latent Variables (3). Prerequisites, SOCI 708 and permission of the instructor. This course examines models sometimes referred to as LISREL models. Topics include: path analysis, confirmatory factor analysis, measurement error, model identification, nonrecursive models, and multiple indicators.
- SOCI 718 Longitudinal and Multilevel Data Analysis (3). Prerequisite, SOCI 709, 711, or equivalent. This course provides an introduction to event history analysis or survival analysis, random effects and fixed effects models for longitudinal data, multilevel models for linear and discrete multilevel data, and growth curve models.
- EDUC 684 Statistical Analysis of Educational Data I (4). Studies descriptive and inferential statistics for educational research, including an introduction to fundamentals of research design and computer data analysis.
- EDUC 784 Statistical Analysis of Educational Data II (4). Prerequisite, EDUC 684 or permission of the instructor. A linear model approach to the analysis of data collected in educational settings. Topics include multiple regression, analysis of variance, and analysis of covariance, using computer packages.
Alternative Courses to Fulfill Measurement Requirement
- HBHE 852 Scale Development Methods (3). Prerequisites, HBHE 750 or equivalent, and permission of the instructor. Covers theory and application of scale development techniques for measuring latent constructs in health research; classical measurement theory and factor analytic methods are emphasized.
- PSYC 842 Test Theory and Analysis (3). Prerequisite, PSYC 831. Survey of classical test theory and more recent developments in item analysis and test construction.
- NURS 978 Principal Measurement (3). Examination of measurement and techniques for assessing validity, reliability, and structure of data collection instruments. Instrumental construction and procedures for critical evaluation of instruments are included.
- ENG 601 English for International Students (All international students are encouraged to take this course their first semester at UNC).
- ENG 603 English Pronunciation
Students will take electives courses for a minimum of 10 credits hours. In addition to taking traditional classroom courses, credits toward elective requirements may be earned by participating in experiential research activities. The choice of electives will depend on concentration area and must be approved by the student's advisor. There are three concentration areas for PhD students in DPOP: Pharmacoeconomics and Drug Policy, Pharmacoepidemiology, and Social/Behavioral Pharmacy. Listed below are some of the highly recommended elective courses in each of the concentration areas.
Pharmacoeconomics and Drug Policy
ECON 851: Health Economics in Developing Countries
HPAA 652: Economic Evaluation of Healthcare Technology
HPAA 715: Health Economics for Policy and Administration
HPAA 762: Quality of Care
HPAA 815: Health Economics Seminar
EPID 705: Introduction to Logic and Probability Logic in Epidemiology
EPID 715: Theory and Quantitative Methods in Epidemiology
EPID 733: Clinical Trials Epidemiology
EPID 743 : Genetic Epidemiology
EPID 750: Epidemiologic Surveillance in Public Health
EPID 765: Methods and Issues in Pharmacoepidemiology
EPID 764: Hospital Epidemiology
EPID 800: Epidemiology of Medical Care
EPID 805 : Clinical Epidemiology
EPID 893: Pharmacoepidemiology Seminar
Social/ Behavioral Pharmacy
HBHE 750: Applied Research Methods in Health Behavior and Health Education
HBHE 800: Social Psychological Theories of Individual Health Behavior:
HBHE 801: Topics in Sociology of Health
HBHE 853: Advanced Evaluation of Health Intervention Programs
PSYC 851: Multidimensional Scaling
PSYC 864: Topics in Attitude Research
SOCI 802: Social Psychological Theory
SOCI 822: Sociological Theories of Aging and the Adult Life Course
SOCI 836: Social Gerontology
SOCI 862: Health Organizations and Occupations
SOCI 863: Medical Sociology: Health, Illness, and Healing
Teaching Practicum Requirement
The teaching experience is a requirement for students admitted into the doctoral program. Its purpose is to enhance knowledge and skills in teaching. Optimally, it should be completed during the first two years of the program. It must be completed before taking the comprehensive exam.
To fulfill this requirement, the student must be involved in teaching a two or three credit hour course. Students should work with the DPOP faculty to determine which course they will select to satisfy their practicum requirement. Students must fill out a contract before starting their practicum. The student will be mentored in teaching by a DPOP faculty member and at the end of the practicum, will be evaluated by the supervising faculty member. A satisfactory evaluation is required to fulfill the teaching practicum requirement. The student must assume responsibility for major aspects of their selected practicum course (e.g. planning and teaching). Simply serving as a teaching assistant does not satisfy this requirement. Students must deliver at least four 50 minute lectures and must attend at least one seminar on teaching while doing the practicum. Seminars are offered through the graduate school and through the Center on Teaching and Learning.
Research Practicum Requirement
The research practicum is a requirement for students admitted into the doctoral program. Its purpose is to enhance knowledge and skills in research by working on one or more research projects. Optimally, it should be completed during the first two years of the program to develop the skills necessary to complete the dissertation. It must be completed before taking the comprehensive exams. Students must fill out a contract before starting their practicum. At the end of the practicum, students will be evaluated by the faculty member who is supervising their practicum. A satisfactory evaluation is required to fulfill the research practicum requirement. The practicum may involve designing and implementing a research project, conducting data analyses, writing manuscripts, preparing a grant proposal, presenting findings at a meeting, or a combination of these activities. Data entry, photocopying, or interviewing patients alone does not satisfy the practicum requirement. The student must devote the equivalent of 15 hours per week for a regular semester (14 weeks), for a total of 210 hours.
PhD students are expected to complete all the required coursework, proposal writing, and the research and teaching practicums before they can take comprehensive exams.
The objective of the doctoral comprehensive exams is to ensure that students are proficient in three concentration areas before pursuing a PhD dissertation. Although a student may choose to focus his/her studies in one area, the knowledge and skill set in all three areas are considered necessary in general for a qualified PhD candidate to further pursue a dissertation research in pharmaceutical policy and evaluative sciences. The three tested areas are: 1) pharmacoeconomics; 2) pharmacoepidemiology; and 3) health behavioral sciences. Exams will have three modules, corresponding to these three areas.
After successfully passing the comprehensive exams, students will begin to work on their dissertation proposal. A minimum of six (6) hours of thesis credit must be taken in order to complete the requirements for the PhD degree. There is no limit to the number of dissertation hours that can be taken; however, no more than six (6) hours may be applied to the minimum of 49 hours needed to satisfy graduation requirements. The Division does not make any additional thesis requirements beyond those stated in the Graduate School Handbook section on Thesis and Dissertation Preparation and Requirements.
Dissertations can follow the traditional monograph or the three paper option format. The three paper option requires three journal-length manuscripts of publishable quality that could be altered slightly for submission to refereed journals, accompanied by additional sections and/or appendices that provide detail normally included in the monograph dissertation format but excluded from articles (e.g., a more detailed literature review, questionnaires, details on data collection, concluding chapter).